Articulation is the way we produce speech sounds.
We use our tongue, lips, teeth, jaw and vocal folds to produce speech sounds. Children can experience a range of difficulties that will affect the way they produce their speech sounds.
Most children will make mistakes with their speech sound production at some point in their development. Different sounds are expected to develop at different ages. A speech sound delay exists when a child continues to make mistakes with a particular sound or group of sounds past the age expected.
Speech sound delays involve articulation errors (making the sound) and phonological process errors (sound patterns). A phonological delay will cause patterns of speech sound errors.
Speech Intelligibility refers to how well words can be understood by an unfamiliar listener (stranger e.g. a shop assistant)
What are the symptoms of an articulation delay?
What are the symptoms of an phonological delay?
The causes of expressive language difficulties are often unknown.
A number of factors may be working together to contribute to
your child's difficulties. Family history is often the most likely
indicator, although this may not always be the case. A child
may have learnt to a produce a sound incorrectly, or may not
have learnt the rules of speech sound production on their
own. This may mean the child has a speech sound difficulty,
and may not simply outgrow it.
Children who have experienced frequent ear infections with
hearing loss are at risk of experiencing a speech sound
Children who can say a sound when they copy an adult but don't do it
when talking in conversation, are not being lazy. This can often
occur and may indicate the child is experiencing a